-with genitals gone, battling males have nothing to lose.written by Charles Q. Choi for National Geographic News March 30, 2011
Although emasculated spiders can no longer be lovers, they are better fighters, a new study says.
In many spider species, males have sex using two appendages known as pedipalps. But males will often lose one or both pedipalps during the act—behavior that might seem like a bad idea evolutionarily, since it renders the male sterile.
Scientists have proposed that such genital amputation plugs up a female to help ensure that other males don’t successfully impregnate her.
To learn more about why male spiders become eunuchs, scientists examined the mating behaviors of the Southeast Asian orb web spider, Nephilengys malabarensis.
The scientists found that amputated genitals effectively plugged up a female spider 75 percent of the time. In addition, the team saw that males with missing genitals were far more aggressive and active in guarding females.
During contests between males, full eunuchs that had lost both pedipalps were better fighters than half eunuchs and intact males, the study showed. Overall,
the eunuchs were more than three times more likely to attack, chase, and defeat any rivals.
The scientists think that, once a male has lost his means of procreating, he protects his investment further by becoming a superwarrior.
The study also observed that females of this species will frequently devour males after sex, Kuntner added. Males could thus be breaking off their genitals, he said, to help ensure their sperm still has a fighting chance even if they fall victim to cannibalism.
Allemannsretten is a very special law for all Scandinavian countries. The biggest value of this is that every person has the right to contact with nature. It derives from the belief that man is an integral part of nature and civilization has to cooperate with than compete.
Allemannsretten directly translated “all man’s right” plays an important role in how Friluftsliv has evolved in Norway. It gives everyone in Norway a wide-ranging right of access to the countryside. The purpose of this Act is to protect the outdoor natural environment andensure the public right to travel and stay in the nature
. This give the opportunity to practice outdoor activities as a health, being well creative and environmentally friendly to preserve and promote. Outdoor activities and travel in nature, whether it is on the coast, in the woods or the mountains is still a common leisure activity in Norway. The right seems be important for frilufsliv to be able in the future to participate in outdoor activities.-Regardless of who owns the land and the right of use it.
This right definitely allows us to get more from friluftsliv as people love camping nearby the nature close to lakes, rivers and wild forests. In the country where in winter days are so short and bed weather can come in every moment very important is to have a safety shelter and spend cold night. It is different way of using frilufsliv and allemannsretten. 25 % of Norwegian people has a cabin “hytte” in a mountains or nearby the coastline. Mostlyhytte is a wooden, small hut
but sometimes we can meet bigger cabin than a normal house. These who don’t have a cabins are using relatives cabin or are visiting friends there. Anyways different clubs and association have their own huts so people can use it. It is the same situations with companies which are giving the possibility for their employees to reserve a cabin. Nowadays there is more and more holiday’s pensions but they can’t be competitive with typical, old fashioned hytte. Besidesprivate cabins and huts are also lead by Den Norske Turistforeningen
(DNT). DNT from over a hundred years take care about hikers, skiers and climbing lovers. And their cabins are scattered in all wild area. The cabins are connected with the red walking trails. There is red letter “T” painted on the stone (cairn) and they are located on the crossroads most important trails. In winter instead of cairn Norwegian has a stick diged in the ground. The largest number of cabins and marked trails is located between Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim. DNT offers cabins surfed by people and without service for self wayfarers. You can bring your own food or buy in a pantry and than pay by throwing money to the can. This system is based onhonesty
and it works very good.
Aleksandra wrote this.
Eartquake, Tsunami and Fukushima disaster in Japan. UN attacks Khadaffi in Libya.
Eventually; grater focus on safe renewable, sustainable energy?
See these implications from whats happening these days ↴
: : : Japan crisis gives more wind to renewable energy demand
“Following the atomic energy plant crisis in Japan and ahead of the global conference on wind-power in Chennai, there are fresh demands in the city to promote renewable energy by offering lower interest on loans to stakeholders in the renewable energy industry. The stress this time is as much as on clean energy as safe energy.” indianexpress.com
: : : Fukushima crisis raises fresh concerns over UK nuclear energy expansion
“It is essential, in the public interest, that full media coverage is given to the case against nuclear power and that scientists who oppose nuclear power should have the opportunity to spell out the facts as they understand them.
Not to do so, and not to suspend and reconsider the building of new nuclear power stations, would be criminal irresponsibility, playing with the lives of hundreds of thousands of people and gambling with the very fabric of our environment and its structures.” theecologist.org
About Japan’s energy.